1. Integral Toughening and Mould Toughening Technology
模具不僅要具有優異的綜合強度性能，而且型腔表面也要有優異的性能，這樣才能進步模具的使用壽命，以達到要求，在模具上再提出對經緯線的綜合強度進行改變，停止外觀改善的各種處理過程:對于普通冷加工模具鋼，采用低溫淬火和低溫回火處理，可獲得增強韌性、降低脆性和破碎性的良好效果;對熱模具鋼進行高溫淬火回火處理，可顯著提高熱模具鋼的強度、韌性和熱穩定性。例如，對3Cr2W8V數據制成的壓鑄模具，采用400℃~ 500℃和800℃~ 850℃兩種預正火后再停止高溫淬火、回火處理，可提高韌性40%，模具壽命可提高1倍。
Mould not only has excellent comprehensive strength performance, but also has excellent performance on the surface of the cavity. Only in this way can the service life of the die be improved to meet the requirements. It is proposed that the comprehensive strength of longitude and weft should be changed on the die, and all kinds of treatment processes for improving the appearance should be stopped. For common cold-working die steel, low-temperature quenching and low-temperature tempering treatment can be used to enhance the service life of the die. Good effect of toughness, reducing brittleness and crushing; high temperature quenching and tempering treatment of hot die steel can significantly improve the strength, toughness and thermal stability of hot die steel. For example, the toughness of the die-casting die made from 3Cr2W8V data can be increased by 40% and the life of the die can be increased by one time by using two kinds of pre-normalizing: 400 ~500 ~800 ~850 ~before stopping high temperature quenching and tempering treatment.
In addition, the deformation can be heat treated. Deformation heat treatment is a toughening and toughening process that separates the strengthening and phase transformation strengthening phases of steel. The toughening essence of deformation heat treatment is to obtain fine austenite grains, refine martensite, increase the dislocation density of martensite, form cellular substructure and promote carbide diffusion hardening.
2. Mould Appearance Strengthened Heat Treatment
The process of die appearance enhancement mainly includes gas soft nitriding, ion nitriding, EDM appearance enhancement, boronizing, TD, CVD, PVD, optical appearance enhancement, ion implantation, plasma spraying, etc.
(1)氣體軟氮化:使氮在氮化溫度合成后產生活性氮原子，由金屬表面吸收入鋼內并由外向內擴散，形成氮化層。模具經硝化處理后，外部硬度可達到HV950 ~ 1200，使模具具有很高的紅色硬度和很高的疲勞強度，并提高了模具外觀的亮度和抗咬傷能力。
(1) Gas soft nitriding: Nitrogen is synthesized at nitriding temperature to produce active nitrogen atoms, which are absorbed into steel by metal surface and diffused from outside to inside to form nitriding layer. After nitrification treatment, the external hardness of the die can reach HV950 ~ 1200, which makes the die have high red hardness and high fatigue strength, and improves the brightness of the die appearance and anti-bite ability.
(2)離子氮化:將待處理的模具在真空容器,充滿一定壓力的氮氣混合物),如氮或氮、氫,然后處理模具的陰極,陽極與真空容器蓋墻,陽極和400 ~ 600 v直流電壓、電極、陰陽開始輝光放電,氣體電離的容器,大量的電子和離子的空間。在電場作用下，正離子沖向陰極，高速轟擊模具表面，使模具升溫。高能正離子被帶進模具外，獲得電子，變成氮原子被模具外吸收，并擴散形成滲氮層。離子滲氮可提高模具的耐磨性和疲勞強度。
(2) Ion nitriding: the mould to be treated is filled with a mixture of nitrogen gas under certain pressure, such as nitrogen or nitrogen and hydrogen, and then the cathode of the mould, the cover wall of the anode and vacuum container, the glow discharge of the anode and 400-600 V DC voltage, the anode and the cathode, the cathode and the cathode and the cathode start, the gas ionization container, and a large number of electrons and ions space. Under the action of electric field, the positive ions rush to the cathode and bombard the surface of the die at high speed, which makes the die warm up. High-energy positive ions are brought into the mold, and electrons are obtained. Nitrogen atoms are absorbed outside the mold and diffused to form nitriding layer. Ion nitriding can improve the wear resistance and fatigue strength of the die.
(3) Appearance enhancement of EDM: This is the process of directly applying high energy density electric energy to stop strengthening the appearance of dies. By means of spark discharge, conductive data are dissolved into the surface of metal workpiece as electrodes, thus forming an alloy surface strengthening layer, thereby improving the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the working surface. For example, the use of WC, twitch and other cemented carbide electrode materials to strengthen the appearance of high-speed steel or alloy tool steel can form a microscope HV1100 hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and red hardening layer hardness, so that the service life of the die is significantly improved. The advantages of EDM appearance enhancement are simple equipment and easy operation. After treatment, the wear resistance of the die has made remarkable progress. The defects are rough surface, thin thickness of strengthening layer and low efficiency of strengthening treatment.
(4)滲硼:因為紅色滲硼層具有良好的硬度、耐磨性,滲硼后可以顯著提高模具的硬度的外觀(達到HV1300 ~ 2000)和耐磨性,可以常用模具外觀加強,特別適用于模具的磨損條件的治療。但滲硼層的脆性較大，限制了滲硼層的應用。
(4) Boronizing: Because the red boronizing layer has good hardness and wear resistance, the hardness appearance (up to HV1300-2000) and wear resistance of the die can be significantly improved after boronizing, and the appearance of the commonly used die can be strengthened, especially for the treatment of wear conditions of the die. However, the brittleness of boronized layer is large, which limits the application of boronized layer.
5 TD熱處理:在空氣或耐熱鋼坩堝鹽浴爐,硼砂濃縮到坩堝加熱到800℃~ 1200℃,然后到相應的硬質合金粉末的成分(如鈦、釩、鈮和鉻),然后到坩堝鋼或硬質合金工件浸漬絕緣,1 ~ 2小時參加元素將傳播與碳鋼工件外觀和攻擊反應形成碳化層,所得到的碳化物層具有較高的硬度和耐磨性。
5 TD heat treatment: In air or heat-resistant steel crucible salt bath furnace, borax is concentrated to crucible and heated to 800 ~1200 C, then to the corresponding composition of cemented carbide powder (such as titanium, vanadium, niobium and chromium), and then to crucible steel or cemented carbide workpiece impregnated insulation, 1 to 2 hours to participate in the elements will be propagated and reacted with the appearance and attack of carbon steel workpiece to form a carbide layer, resulting in a carbide layer with high hardness. Degree and wear resistance.
6 CVD(化學氣相沉積):死在氫(或其他維護氣體)加熱到900℃~ 1200℃,為載體,低溫氣化揮發性金屬化合物氣體如四氯化鈦(TiCI4)和甲苯CH4(或其他碳氫化合物)蒸汽烤箱,由鈦和碳氫化合物在TiCI4碳(以及碳鋼)的外觀模具外表阻止化學反應,生成一層所需的金屬化合物,如碳化鈦涂層。
6 CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition): Dead in hydrogen (or other maintenance gases) and heated to 900 ~1200 C. As carriers, volatile metal compounds such as titanium tetrachloride (TiCI4) and toluene CH4 (or other hydrocarbons) are gasified at low temperatures in steam ovens. Titanium and hydrocarbons prevent chemical reactions on the surface of TiCI4 carbon (and carbon steel) dies to form the required metal compounds, such as titanium carbide coating. Layer.
7 PVD method (physical vapor superposition method): Enhance the evaporation of metal atoms in vacuum chamber, or by bombarding charged particles, under the action of current bias, absorb and accumulate them on the surface of workpiece to form a strengthening layer. Titanium carbide, titanium nitride, alumina and other compounds can be deposited on the workpiece surface by vapor deposition.
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